Chris Hedges: America’s Fate — Oligarchy or Autocracy

The competing systems of power are divided between alternatives which widen the social and political divide — and increase potential for violent conflict.

U.S. Capitol fenced off in late January.  (Ted Eytan, Flickr)

By Chris Hedges

The competing systems of power in the United States are divided between oligarchy and autocracy. There are no other alternatives. Neither are pleasant. Each have peculiar and distasteful characteristics. Each pays lip service to the fictions of democracy and constitutional rights. And each exacerbates the widening social and political divide and the potential for violent conflict.

The oligarchs from the establishment Republican Party — figures such as Liz Cheney, Mitt Romney, George and Jeb Bush and Bill Kristol — have joined forces with the oligarchs in the Democratic Party to defy the autocrats in the new Republican Party who have coalesced in cult-like fashion around Donald Trump or, if he does not run again for president, his inevitable Frankensteinian doppelgänger. 

(Original illustration by Mr. Fish) 

The alliance of Republican and Democratic oligarchs exposes the burlesque that characterized the old two-party system, where the ruling parties fought over what Sigmund Freud called the “narcissism of minor differences” but were united on all the major structural issues including massive defense spending, free trade deals, tax cuts for the wealthy and corporations, the endless wars, government surveillance, the money-saturated election process, neoliberalism, austerity, deindustrialization, militarized police and the world’s largest prison system.

The liberal class, fearing autocracy, has thrown in its lot with the oligarchs, discrediting and rendering impotent the causes and issues it claims to champion. The bankruptcy of the liberal class is important, for it effectively turns liberal democratic values into the empty platitudes those who embrace autocracy condemn and despise.

So, for example, censorship is wrong, unless the contents of Hunter Biden’s laptop are censored, or Donald Trump is banished from social media. Conspiracy theories are wrong, unless those theories, such as the Steele dossier and Russiagate, can be used to damage the autocrat. The misuse of the legal system and law enforcement agencies to carry out personal vendettas are wrong, unless those vendettas are directed at the autocrat and those who support him. Giant tech monopolies and their monolithic social media platforms are wrong, unless those monopolies use their algorithms, control of information and campaign contributions to ensure the election of the oligarch’s anointed presidential candidate, Joe Biden. 

The perfidy of the oligarchs, masked by the calls for civility, tolerance and respect for human rights, often out does that of the autocracy. The Trump administration, for example, expelled 444,000 asylum seekers under Title 42, a law that permits the immediate expulsion of those who potentially pose a public health risk and denies the expelled migrants the right to make a case to stay in the U.S. before an immigration judge.

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The Biden administration not only embraced the Trump order in the name of fighting the pandemic, but has thrown out more than 690,000 asylum seekers since taking office in January. The Biden administration, on the heels of another monster hurricane triggered at least in part by climate change, has opened up 80 million acres for oil and gas drilling in the Gulf of Mexico and boasted that the sale will produce 1.12 billion barrels of oil over the next 50 years. It has bombed Syria and Iraq, and on the way out the door in Afghanistan murdered 10 civilians, including seven children, in a drone strike.

It has ended three pandemic relief programs, cutting off benefits under the Pandemic Unemployment Assistance that were given to 5.1 million people who worked as freelancers, in the gig economy or as caregivers. An additional 3.8 million people who received assistance from the Pandemic Emergency Unemployment Compensation for the long term unemployed have also lost access to their benefits. They join the 2.6 million people who no longer receive the $300 weekly supplement and are struggling to cope with a $1,200 drop in their monthly earnings.

Biden’s campaign talk of raising the minimum wage, forgiving student debt, immigration reform, and making housing a human right has been forgotten. At the same time, the Democratic leadership, proponents of a new cold war with China and Russia, has authorized provocative military maneuvers along Russia’s borders and in the South China Sea and speeded up production of its long-range B-21 Raider stealth bomber.

The Power Elite

Joe Biden campaigning for president in Tampa, Florida, Oct. 29, 2020. (Adam Schultz, Biden for President, Flickr, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Oligarchs come from the traditional nexus of elite schools, inherited money, the military and corporations, those C. Wright Mills calls the “power elite.” “Material success,” Mills notes, “is their sole basis of authority.”

The word oligarchy is derived from the Greek word “oligos” meaning “a few” and it is the oligos that sees power and wealth as its birthright, which they pass on to their family and children, as exemplified by George W. Bush or Mitt Romney. The word “autocracy” is derived from the Greek word “auto” meaning “self,” as in one who rules by himself. 

In decayed democracies the battle for power is always, as Aristotle points out, between these two despotic forces, although if there is a serious threat of socialism or left-wing radicalism, as was true in the Weimar Republic, the oligarchs forge an uncomfortable alliance with the autocrat and his henchmen to crush it. 

This is why the donor class and hierarchy of the Democratic Party sabotaged the candidacy of Bernie Sanders (although on the political spectrum Sanders is not a radical) and publicly stated, as the former CEO of Goldman Sachs Lloyd Blankfein did, that should Sanders get the nominee they would support Trump. The alliance between the oligarchs and the autocrats gives birth to fascism, in our case a Christianized fascism.

The oligarchs embrace a faux morality of woke culture and identity politics, which is anti-politics, to give themselves the veneer of liberalism, or at least the veneer of an enlightened oligarchy. The oligarchs have no genuine ideology. Their single-minded goal is the amassing of wealth, hence the obscene amounts of money accrued by oligarchs such as Bill Gates, Elon Musk or Jeff Bezos and the staggering sums of profit made by corporations that have, essentially, orchestrated a legal tax boycott, forcing the state to raise most of its revenues from massive government deficits, now totaling $3 trillion, and disproportionally taxing the working and middle classes. 

Oligarchies, which spew saccharine pieties and platitudes, engage in lies that are often far more destructive to the public than the lies of a narcissist autocrat. Yet, the absence of an ideology among the oligarchs gives to oligarchic rule a flexibility lacking in autocratic forms of power. Because there is no blind loyalty to an ideology or a leader there is room in an oligarchy for limited reform, moderation and those who seek to slow or put a brake on the most egregious forms of injustice and inequality. 

Adulation of the Autocrat

Jan. 6, 2021: President Donald Trump speaking to supporters in Washington. (Voice of America, Wikimedia Commons)

An autocracy, however, is not pliable. It burns out these last remnants of humanism. It is based solely on adulation of the autocrat, no matter how absurd, and the fear of offending him. This is why politicians such as Lindsey Graham and Mike Pence, at least until he refused to invalidate the election results, humiliated themselves abjectly and repeatedly at the feet of Trump. Pence’s unforgiveable sin of certifying the election results instantly turned him into a traitor. One sin against an autocrat is one sin too many. Trump supporters stormed the capital on Jan. 6 shouting “hang Mike Pence.” As Cosimo de’ Medici remarked, “we are nowhere commanded to forgive our friends.”

The political and economic disempowerment that is the consequence of oligarchy infantilizes a population, which in desperation gravitates to a demagogue who promises prosperity and a restoration of a lost golden age, moral renewal based on “traditional” values and vengeance against those scapegoated for the nation’s decline. 

The Biden’s administration’s refusal to address the deep structural inequities that plague the country is already ominous. In the latest Harvard/Harris poll Trump has overtaken Biden in approval ratings, with Biden falling to 46 percent and Trump rising to 48 percent. Add to this the report by the University of Chicago Project on Security & Threats that found that 9 percent of Americans believe the “use of force is justified to restore Donald J. Trump to the presidency.”  More than a fourth of adults agree, in varying degrees, the study found, that, “the 2020 election was stolen, and Joe Biden is an illegitimate president.” The polling indicates that 8.1 percent  — 21 million Americans  — share both these beliefs. Anywhere from 15 million to 28 million adults would apparently support the violent overthrow of the Biden administration to restore Trump to the presidency.  

“The insurrectionist movement is more mainstream, cross-party, and more complex than many people might like to think, which does not bode well for the 2022 mid-term elections, or for that matter, the 2024 Presidential election,” the authors of the Chicago report write.

Fear is the Glue

Police photos of Grigori Zinoviev after his arrest in 1934. (Wikimedia Commons)

Fear is the glue that holds an autocratic regime in place. Convictions can change. Fear does not. The more despotic an autocratic regime becomes, the more it resorts to censorship, coercion, force and terror to cope with its endemic and often irrational paranoia. Autocracies, for this reason, inevitably embrace fanaticism. Those who serve the autocracy engage in ever more extreme acts against those the autocrat demonizes, seeking the autocrat’s approval and the advancement of their careers. 

Revenge against real or perceived enemies is the autocrat’s single-minded goal. The autocrat takes sadistic pleasure in the torment and humiliation of his enemies, as Trump did when he watched the mob storm the capital on Jan. 6, or, in a more extreme form, as Joseph Stalin did when he doubled over in laughter as his underlings acted out the desperate pleading for his life by the condemned Grigori Zinoviev, once one of the most influential figures in the Soviet leadership and the chairman of the Communist International, on the way to his execution in 1936.

Autocratic leaders, as Joachim Fest writes, are often “demonic nonentities.” 

“Rather than the qualities which raised him from the masses, it was those qualities he shared with them and of which he was a representative example that laid the foundation for his success,” Fest wrote of Adolf Hitler, words that could apply to Trump. “He was the incarnation of the average, ‘the man who lent the masses his voice and through whom the masses spoke.’ In him the masses encountered themselves.”

The autocrat, who celebrates a grotesque hyper-masculinity, projects an aura of omnipotence. He demands obsequious fawning and total obedience. Loyalty is more important than competence. Lies and truth are irrelevant. The statements of the autocrat, which can in short spaces of time be contradictory, cater exclusively to the transient emotional needs of his followers. There is no attempt to be logical or consistent. There is no attempt to reach out to opponents. Rather, there is a constant stoking of antagonisms that steadily widens the social, political and cultural divides. Reality is sacrificed for fantasy. Those who question the fantasy are branded as irredeemable enemies.

“Anyone who wants to rule men first tries to humiliate them, to trick them out of their rights and their capacity for resistance, until they are as powerless before him as animals,” wrote Elias Canetti in Crowds and Power of the autocrat.

“He uses them like animals and, even if he does not tell them so, in himself he always knows quite clearly that they mean just as little to him; when he speaks to his intimates, he will call them sheep or cattle. His ultimate aim is to incorporate them into himself and to suck the substance out of them. What remains of them afterwards does not matter to him. The worse he has treated them, the more he despises them. When they are no more use at all, he disposes of them as he does excrement, simply seeing to it that they do not poison the air of his house.”

It is, ironically, the oligarchs who build the institutions of oppression, the militarized police, the dysfunctional courts, the raft of anti-terrorism laws used against dissidents, ruling through executive orders rather than the legislative process, wholesale surveillance and the promulgation of laws that overturn the most basic Constitutional rights by judicial fiat.

Thus, the Supreme Court rules that corporations have the right to pump unlimited amounts of money into political campaigns because it is a form of free speech, and because corporations have the constitutional right to petition the government. The oligarchs do not use these mechanisms of oppression with the same ferocity as the autocrats. They employ them fitfully and therefore often ineffectually. But they create the physical and legal systems of oppression so that an autocrat, with the flick of a switch, can establish a de facto dictatorship.

The autocrat oversees a naked kleptocracy in place of the hidden kleptocracy of the oligarchs. But it is debatable whether the more refined kleptocracy of the oligarchs is any worse than the crude and open kleptocracy of the autocrat. The autocrat’s attraction is that as he fleeces the public, he entertains the crowd. He orchestrates engaging spectacles. He gives vent, often through vulgarity, to the widespread hatred of the ruling elites. He provides a host of phantom enemies, usually the weak and the vulnerable, who are rendered nonpersons. His followers are given license to attack these enemies, including the feckless liberals and intellectuals who are a pathetic appendage to the oligarchic class. Autocracies, unlike oligarchies, make for engaging political theater. 

We must defy the oligarchs as well as the autocrats. If we replicate the cowardice of the liberal class, if we sell out to the oligarchs as a way to blunt the rise of autocracy, we will discredit the core values of a civil society and fuel the very autocracy we seek to defeat. Despotism, in all its forms, is dangerous. If we achieve nothing else in the fight against the oligarchs and the autocrats, we will at least salvage our dignity and integrity. 

Chris Hedges is a Pulitzer Prize–winning journalist who was a foreign correspondent for 15 years for The New York Times, where he served as the Middle East bureau chief and Balkan bureau chief for the paper. He previously worked overseas for The Dallas Morning NewsThe Christian Science Monitor and NPR. He is the host of the Emmy Award-nominated RT America show “On Contact.”  

This column is from Scheerpost, for which Chris Hedges writes a regular columnClick here to sign up for email alerts.

The views expressed are solely those of the author and may or may not reflect those of Consortium News.

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14 comments for “Chris Hedges: America’s Fate — Oligarchy or Autocracy

  1. Zhu
    September 30, 2021 at 18:05

    The decline of the US republic parallels the decline of the Roman republic in interesting ways. Perhaps we’ve already morphed into a disguised autocracy, with pretend elections, court system, etc. Trump is our Caligula.

  2. September 29, 2021 at 17:10

    Kudos to SheerPost and ConsortiumNews for publishing yet another informed and illustrative essay by Chris Hedges.
    This cogently written comparative distinction between olygarthic and autocratic despotism, as well as how one devolves from the other, demands being as widely disseminated as possible to our entire population; most of whom, sadly, have not a clue regarding this factual portrait of our present society’s social and political leadership.
    My one small bone of contention is that I think that many of the existing olygarths, especially those within the so-called Financial Services Industry that have caused such extensive damage to our public economy, should have been named along with Gates, Bezos, and Musk. I don’t recall any of these three olygarths being involved in misappropriating literally trillions of dollars from the civil service retirement trust funds or creating fraudulent investment instruments that crashed the home loans of millions of citizens. Those olygarths have earned being mentioned by name?
    As Usual,
    Thom Williams

  3. Zhu
    September 29, 2021 at 04:12

    Thank you Mr. Hedges. As usual, your essay is very clear-sighted and plain-spoken.

  4. L M Lewis
    September 28, 2021 at 14:03

    I think the two parties qualify as cults. Each has created its own ‘reality’ that has little to do with actual reality, and aggressively polices the thinking of its adherents. Each has created its own vocabulary, redefining common words for the purpose of creating division and enforcing boundaries between “them” and “us.” In each, the leaders are treated like gods–infallible and exempted from restrictions that apply to others. Outsiders are demonized and blamed for any ills that befall the flocks. The leaders of both groups dangle promises of a better life to their flocks, offering token gifts to the faithful, while hoovering up all of the group’s collective resources for themselves and gradually driving the flock to destruction for the ‘greater good.’

    • robert e williamson jr
      September 28, 2021 at 19:50

      Great stuff.

      The resulting politics are used allowing each side to facilitate the existence of the other, which in turn results in the support of the Deep State. You are so right in your explanation of “Who They Are”.

      But trust me there exists no large group of Americans who have the ability to sustain this ruse without a higher authority looking over their shoulder. Especially when they have the concentration of wealth observed in DC.

      The Deep State as we call it is hard wired to counties the world over, an international casual group and have no allegiance to any flag. It’$ that corporate thing.

      Thanks LML and Consortium News

  5. September 28, 2021 at 13:27

    “If we replicate the cowardice of the liberal class, if we sell out to the oligarchs as a way to blunt the rise of autocracy, we will discredit the core values of a civil society and fuel the very autocracy we seek to defeat.”

    We sold out to the oligarchs long ago by allowing two political parties, each of which is ruled by oligarchs, to dominate our political system. The Supreme Court, made up of oligarchs, then cemented their permanence in concrete by allowing them to spend any amount of money to purchase our elections.

  6. Alex Cox
    September 28, 2021 at 10:26

    How can the dreaded autocrat ‘at the flick of a switch establish a dictstorship’ if his three principal intelligence agencies, his generals, and the bulk of the MSM are all working in unison against him?

    • September 28, 2021 at 13:30

      It’s not difficult. If Josef Stalin were still alive, he could give lessons. Instead of using the “power of the purse”, he mastered the “power of the purge.”

  7. Frank Lambert
    September 28, 2021 at 09:46

    A masterpiece of informative reality about the real America of today!

    I think there was a typo about Zinoviev. If he was executed in 1926, how could he arrested in 1934?

    Keep at it Mr. Hedges! You are one of most courageous truth-tellers out there and a hero of mine for many years!

    And thank you CN for printing the article!

  8. Aaron
    September 28, 2021 at 06:23

    An historian on the Johnstown flood disaster I heard interviewed, emphasized that the greatest lesson of the tragedy was to not trust the power elites, that they do not care about the common people. Although there were rumors and claims that the dam would breach one day, most folks believed that the rich robber barons and oligos who controlled everything would not let anything bad happen. But they allowed the lake formed by the dam to get much too deep for their hunting and fishing club recreational activities, not caring that it was a precarious situation. Even installing metal grates over the spillways so their stocked fish would stay put, which rusted out and couldn’t be removed in time to stop the breach. Then the heavy rains came, and a most horrific disaster ensued. And after the water receded, looters cut off the fingers of the corpses to steal jewelry until the vigilantes hung them. I think that today’s robber barons are allowing climate change to accelerate uncontrollably now, and don’t care that it is wrecking our lives. They perpetuate mostly Zionist wars, using the tax dollars of the working classes, not caring about the death and PTSD it causes. Then in this miserable morass, we are left fighting brutishly with each other, and blaming each other, to the amusement of the elites.
    We are just, as Canetti pointed out, sheep and cattle to the billionaires.

    • Zhu
      September 29, 2021 at 04:22

      Sorry, Aaron, blaming problems of scapegoats like “Zionists” discredits everything else you say.

    • September 29, 2021 at 15:05

      Very appropriate example. Unfortunately I don’t believe anything will change but we have to keep trying. Zionists should not be allowed to win.

  9. robert e williamson jr
    September 27, 2021 at 22:03

    A little levity on this subject of fear, especially before I leave my sobering comment.

    Grigory Zinoviev is looking pretty good in 1934. Stalin and them dirty Russians, after condemning and executing him in 1926 they had the audacity to arrest him again in 1934. Prolly because Grigory reminded them of Ralph Nader.

    On a much more solemn note I would remind Mr. Hedges that dignity does not fill the empty stomach and integrity will not cast off the cold at night.

    I must be of that “irredeemable enemy” bent. I’m anchored in reality, I see the same things Mr. Hedges describes here at great depth in brilliant clarity. But on a much more solemn note I would remind. Mr. Hedges that dignity does not fill the empty stomach and integrity will not cast off the cold at night.

    The youth are taking over in the population and they have lots of energy.

    This a very big country inhabited by a very large number of people who don’t seem to know diddly-squat about why they are in the fix they are in. When the cold and hunger comes, as it surely will, the true cowards, those who have the means to prevent that cold and hunger, but refuse, will pay a price for the hate and the greed they have bestowed on the “lost in time” obstinate angry down trodden masses.

    And obstinate and angry they are!

    I figure very few in DC actually have the stomach for what they may end up causing here in the good ole US of A.

    Maybe what needs to be done is for those of use who intend to defy the corrupt powers that exist send this message of doom to the those who fake liberalism. I’m not seeing liberals among the democrats, I see the same phonies Chris describes here. Democrats who seem all too ready to take the money and run.

    Hey Joe, Nancy and the gang this is going to make for terrible optics, you dumb asses!

    I’m just saying!

    Thanks CN

  10. Andrew Nichols
    September 27, 2021 at 20:35

    I always said that Trump had more in common with his predecessors and his successor than differences. He just dispensed with the oily manners and deceit that hid the ugly reality of what the US is. He did the civlised world a service and in the process revealed their leaders as appalling obsequious vassals.

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