“Hotel Rwanda” is a touchstone of interventionist ideology, writes Ann Garrison. Debunking that script helps show why the closure of the assassination case against Rwanda’s President Paul Kagame serves Western interests.
By Ann Garrison
Black Agenda Report
Most Westerners believe that the Rwandan Genocide was the simple story of good and evil told in the hugely successful film “Hotel Rwanda,” but there is barely a moment of “Hotel Rwanda” that is not carefully constructed propaganda. The film was produced to convince the world that demon Hutus murdered a million innocent Tutsis in 100 days in 1994, that the U.S. and its NATO allies failed to intervene, and that their failure obligates them to intervene “to stop genocide” anywhere in the world from hereon.
Obama’s foreign policy team—most prominently Secretary of State Hillary Clinton; U.N. Ambassador Susan Rice and Samantha Power, a national security advisor—invoked the Rwandan genocide over and over, as did the press, to justify destroying Libya and beginning the aerial bombing war that continues in Syria today. The propaganda has also been used to justify Rwandan President Paul Kagame’s invasions, occupation and resource plunder in the fabulously resource rich Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Western press and governments have portrayed him as Rwanda’s savior and characterized his invasions of DRC as the defense of Rwanda against “Hutu genocidaires” who fled into the DRC as he and his army advanced and seized power.
The late Edward S. Herman and his co-author David Petersen deconstructed these lies in “Enduring Lies: the Rwandan Genocide in the Propaganda System, 20 Years Later.” So did Robin Philpot in “Rwanda and the New Scramble for Africa, from Tragedy to Useful Imperial Fiction;” Marie-Beatrice Umutesi in “Surviving the Slaughter, the Ordeal of a Rwandan Refugee in Zaire;” Peter Erlinder in his compendium of primary source documents “The Accidental Genocide;” and most recently Judi Rever in “In Praise of Blood: Crimes of the Rwandan Patriotic Front.” But none of these books made bestseller lists, and none could come close to the influence of “Hotel Rwanda.”
Essential elements left out of the “Hotel Rwanda” construction include the 1990-1994 Rwandan War and massacres that concluded in the infamous hundred days. The tragedy happened over four years’ time, not 100 days, and both Hutus and Tutsis were massacred, Hutus by Kagame’s army.
Another missing element is the unsolved crime that triggered the final bloodletting of the final 100 days: the assassination of Rwanda and Burundi’s Hutu presidents, when a surface-to-air missile downed their plane as it was approaching the airport in Rwanda’s capital Kigali on April 6, 1994. No one has ever been convicted of the crime, and there is enormous Western pressure to make sure that no one ever is. Overwhelming evidence implicates Kagame, but he is a key U.S. ally and “military partner” in Africa, and the “Hotel Rwanda” story is a key touchstone of Western interventionist ideology.
Kagame has nevertheless been accused and his inner circle indicted in both French and Spanish courts, where French and Spanish citizens claim jurisdiction because their family members died in the plane shoot-down or the ensuing massacres, but both of those cases have been shut down.
Last month, geopolitics trumped international justice again—just in time for Christmas. On Dec. 21, a French court closed the long-running case against Kagame and his inner circle for assassinating Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana and Burundian President Cyprien Ntaryamira, both of whom were Hutus.
Nearly 25 years later, there are still no convictions for the assassinations that turned first Rwanda, then DRC, into a vast killing ground. Not in the International Criminal Tribunal on Rwanda, where two investigations of Kagame were shut down, and where a judge told defense attorney Tiphaine Dickson, “We don’t investigate plane crashes [or Tutsis, only Hutus].” And not in the French or Spanish courts.
The Subtext: Imperial Competition
The subtext of the Rwandan War and the ensuing Congo Wars was competition between the U.S./U.K. and France. France, which was then the dominant power in the region, had been the patron of Habyarimana’s Hutu government; the U.S. and U.K. backed Kagame’s invading Tutsi army, which emerged victorious in 1994, declared that English would from thereon be Rwanda’s international business language, then invaded and occupied French-speaking Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) two years later.
France and Rwanda have engaged in a bitter argument off and on for all these years about who was responsible for the 1994 Rwandan genocide. Their embassies have often been closed in one another’s capitals, and France pulled out of the 20th anniversary commemoration in Kigali after Kagame once again accused France of participating in the killing.
One of the recurring points of contention is Opération Turquoise, France’s emergency relief response, which began on June 23, 1994, several weeks before Kagame, then a general, seized power in Kigali. Some French officials who were in office at the time, most notably former French Foreign Minister Alain Juppé, have maintained that Opération Turquoise created a humanitarian corridor for Rwandan Hutus fleeing into Zaire, for fear of being massacred by General Kagame’s advancing Tutsi army. Kagame’s government has claimed that France instead provided an escape route for Hutus guilty of genocide, although the vast majority flooding into Zaire were civilians, including women, children, and the elderly. According to the 2010 UN Mapping Report on Human Rights Abuse in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1993-2003, Kagame’s troops followed the refugees into Zaire and massacred as many as 250,000.
In “Dying to Live: A Rwandan Family’s Five-Year Flight Across the Congo,” Pierre-Claver Ndacyayisenga describes how he and his family and 300,000 more Rwandan Hutus fled Kagame’s advancing army all the way through the Congolese jungle, from east to west, as many more died of hardship or were massacred by Kagame’s troops along the way.
The authors of the UN Mapping Report said that the massacres in Congo would most likely be ruled a genocide if a case were brought to court, but none has been and none ever will be without a major geopolitical shift in power. In 2013, in one of his many cynical moments, former President Bill Clinton told BBC journalist Komla Dumor that he would not condemn his friend Paul Kagame for murdering the refugees because “it hasn’t been adjudicated.” (And because it happened on his watch, with his support, as did the 1998 Rwandan and Ugandan invasions of DRC, during which Kagame and Uganda’s President Yoweri Museveni became what another UN report called “the godfathers of the illegal exploitation of natural resources and the continuation of the conflict in the DRC.”)
France Wants Its Share
France of course wants its share, and French officials now in power have decided to close the case against Kagame in order to secure access to Congo’s riches, which he significantly controls. The court’s ruling came shortly after Rwandan Foreign Minister Louise Mushikiwabo became secretary-general of La Francophonie, an international organization similar to the British Commonwealth, in what was widely perceived to be another concession to smooth French-Rwandan relations and ease France’s imperial access in DRC.
Kayumba Nyamwasa, a former Rwandan general, chief of army staff, and chief of military intelligence, was also named as a defendant in the French indictment. Speaking to Jane Corbin in the BBC video “Rwanda’s Untold Story,” he said that Kagame most definitely ordered his troops to shoot down the plane carrying the Rwandan and Burundian presidents:
Jane Corbin: Who do you believe was behind the shooting down of the plane?
Kayumba Nyamwasa: Paul Kagame undoubtedly.
JC: Paul Kagame?
KN: Oh yes, oh yes.
JC: You know that?
KN: One hundred percent.
JC: Were you at meetings where it was discussed?
KN: Well, I know. I was in a position to know, and he knows I was in a position to know. And he knows that.
BBC interjection: General Nyamwasa has offered to cut a deal with the French judge to testify.
JC: If you discuss these matters with the judge and it implicates you yourself, are you willing to do that?
KN: Obviously. If it implicated me? Why not? Because I think that truth is what matters.
The French court said they were closing the case for lack of “credible” and “significant” evidence despite abundant such evidence. That does not mean, however, that they acquitted Kagame, Nyamwasa, or anyone else who was in Kagame’s inner circle at the time Habyarimana and Ntaryamira were assassinated. As Rwandan American legal scholar Charles Kambanda said, “This is a political decision which could well be superseded by another political decision to reopen the file when there is additional ‘credible’ and ‘significant’ evidence.” In other words, France has mollified Kagame for now, but it’s kept a knife behind its back.
Ann Garrison is an independent journalist based in the San Francisco Bay Area. In 2014, she received the Victoire Ingabire Umuhoza Democracy and Peace Prize for her reporting on conflict in the African Great Lakes Region. She can be reached at [email protected]
We have no idea whether the storm between France vs Italy was kicked up when an Italian politician went on the media and blared out the truth about France’s longstanding colonialism in parts of Africa. France was immediately trying to strangle this Italians throat because no one talks about this fact in Europe.
Turns out, France has a monetary system in Africa called CFA. The French literally STEAL 50% of African profits using this CFA currency network. It seems this is one important reason for African poverty.
To say this is an absolutely illegal operation (EU Dictates) by France is an understatement! The French have been doing this since colonial rule.
The author here, might look into this backdoor policy that is maintaining wealth for the already super wealthy of France.
Google Paul Barill or Captain Paul Barill ex French Counter Terrorism you’ll find out a lot from him on Rwanda and Kagame as he has made it no secret about his own involvement. Barill has a history of leaking as far back as the blowing up of the Rainbow Warrior in New Zealand, he was arrested in France at the time as a suspected leaked when the involvement in the incident of French agents was revealed.
Well if NATO failed to stop genocide in Rwanda they certainly failed to stop it in their home countries by stopping violations by means of social engineering , abortion, multiculturalism, LGBTQism, feminism, non white immigration and real estate price and rent inflation. Anything that leads to a world with fewer white people is white genocide and therefore a crime.
Is it any wonder that Africa is now turning to China for building infrastructure such as roads, power stations & ports etc? Sure they have to exchange minerals or resources for the funds to build these, but at least China gives them something in return in a peaceful non-violent , non-zero sum game in which both sides & peoples can prosper? AFRICANS are given a choice of their own choosing! Contrast that with the deadly, Imperialist game played by the Western Countries such as France, the UK & America who install Dictators & encourage Wars of attrition that kill millions & leave the Country starved of resources by theft of them, pure & simple, for their own benefit, while the people suffer? WHO WOULD YOU CHOOSE? China is forging alliances in Africa with not a shot being fired in anger, whilst America, France & the UK have committed genocide & supported murderers, such as what happened in Rwanda, to achieve their version of resource extraction? If I was African, I’d damn well know whose version of assistance I’d choose & it wouldn’t be the Western powers version of death, chaos & instability!
Yes, Hollywood is the best propagandist , as is Obama’s Propaganda Law of 2013. France still collects billions of tax dollars from over 10 X Colonies in Africa. But today there is another free for all in Africa – the Jews, Chinese, US military, – hell the list will go on and on until the place has no more rich minerals left – then the slave ships will appear again and the cycle will continue. Nothing worse than getting screwed by your own People.
The French CIA, the DGSE, have embarked on a campaign to shift the blame for the Rwandan genocide carried out in 1994 by the Interahamwe, created and funded by the French (something even the French admit to ie see the French Parliament Report on this) to the USA. This article is nothing less than an attempt to divert attention from the crimes committed by the French in Rwanda and serves the purposes of the French CIA.
Many, many Rwandan independent journalists and academics have exposed the role of the French DGSE/CIA in this coverup although it seems western journalists know better than Rwandans what happened in their country?
Why is it that westerners think they know better than Africans what is going on in our continent?
A little homework ie reading the Rwandan independent media tells the real story of what happened in 1994, not the French cover up version being promoted by this article.
Thomas C. Mountain
Thomas C. Mountain is a historian, educator and journalist with over 30 years experience in matters African, has taught African History at the Graduate level in the USA and has been living and reporting from Eritrea since 2006. He can be reached at thomascmountain at g mail dot com
Thank you, Thomas Mountain, for your many thoughtful and informative articles on situations in Africa. Perhaps you and Ann Garrison can have a respectful debate of the origins and conduct of the war, which would be a very valuable document for those beginning a deeper study thereof.
Some years ago I watched “Hotel Rwanda” and I believed it. Since then, thanks to Ann Garrison’s journalism, I’ve learned about what was really going on there. And once again, I see how the corporate media has covered up the real story, lied to us, and has been using that lie to promote more of their “humanitarian” intervention.
June 30, 2013 World Military Spending
To print all information e.g. expanded side notes, shows alternative links, use the print version:
“Of all the enemies to public liberty war is, perhaps, the most to be dreaded because it comprises and develops the germ of every other. War is the parent of armies; from these proceed debts and taxes … known instruments for bringing the many under the domination of the few.… No nation could preserve its freedom in the midst of continual warfare.”— James Madison, Political Observations, 1795
Will good ever prevail?
No mention here of Andre Vltchek’s writings on this topic.
Andre Vltchek and Counterpunch seem to have had a falling-out. Perhaps CN could run his writings.
The Anglo-Saxons US and UK have always been jealous of the popularity of France in Africans minds. The anglo-saxons have lost the “imperial competition” by failing to support people and lack of public infrastructures and social and medical care, and even blatant racism that was not so present in the French Republican Empire. This conflict have been fueled by the US and UK. Paul Kagame have his fair share of responsibility in this horrible conflict. And by the way the Rwanda is a former colony of the Belgian Monarchy, not French. The anglo-saxon hypocrisy is high. They are blatant racists. Even in the US black people were still officially racially segregated until 1969! In South-Africa until 1994! Now black people still have to struggle to see their lives matter in the US but US and UK WASP establishments are giving lessons to the world. What the hell are you thinking? Africans and French have and long story of mutual development and assistance. The French Republic have always included black people in its ranks like any other white solider. They have been criticized in the WWI because they sent African born soldiers, often called “tirailleurs sénégalais” behalf europeans to fight Germany. But it’s only the Republican conception of the French Nation. If you’re a French citizen, no matter your ethnic origins, you can access any occupation in the society if you have the diplomas and universities are free and open to anybody. In the US things were much more ambiguous. The establishment was suspicious of black people and wasn’t willing to give them weapons and “shoot white people”, even a supposed enemy. In France since the Revolution the slavery have been effectively abolished in 1794 in the French West Indies, expect Martinique witch was under British occupation at this time. But in Guadeloupe and Saint-Domingue black slaves have been freed and made citizens with equal rights with white people. That was truly revolutionary at this time! But between 1802 and 1848 slavery have been re-established because of the slave owners of Martinique influenced by the british and tied to Napoleon’s wife Josephine. But with the 1848 Revolution the French Republic definitively abolished slavery and then black people have always been admitted at all levels and racial discrimination forbidden. In Africa the French Republic of tried to “assimilate” local populations by building public infrastructures, schools and so on, and give free education and medical care to people, and by counterpart the european French were exploiting the natural resources the needed for their industries. But the successives World Wars have destroyed the French Empire as a political entity. But some infrastructures remained and gave this people the ability of gaining their independence were it was possible and were the populations were willing to. Many former French colonies are doing quite well and are developing slowly but surely. Their institutions are republicans and the efforts they are putting in public infrastructures and public education are starting to pay. Selling whole countries to private corporations with no tax income and no local employment is only ruining Africans on the long term. French speaking African countries are showing good public governance and long term planning abilities, often seen as “socialism” or “social-democracy” that is a little bit more modern and economically liberal. And a very good level of education. Frequently french speaking African students come in France to achieve their graduation. France and french speaking African countries have a long, complex and rich relationship. They are knowing each other very well. Many Africans live in France and the contrary too. That is the “Francophonie”. And there’s a total respect of the independence of these french speaking African Nations. No favoritism for France, but French people and businesses are naturally very present because of the people from both side. As we speak the same language our offers are naturally well adapted and already well known in Africa because people have them in France. And the French values are still very popular in fact. French people never wanted to keep people under slavery, colonisation and dependence. Sometime independence wars happened like in former Indochina, actual Vietnam witch is still communist despite american massive war. Anticommunist ango-saxons just massacred bunch of people just because of their political orientation : communism. The US just spilled four times more napalm on North Korea than the Vietnam during the Korean War and just killed a third of the korean population, mostly communists. But North Korea is still alive and still communist and still remember what happened to them. Cuba is still alive and still communist despite american embargos and american tyranny with their extraterritorial “justice” to constraint other to follow. They provoque ruin and misery of whole countries and then accuse “socialism” and “communism” of being responsible for that. The WASP establishment that rules the anglo-saxon empire is just hypocrite and fascist to the core. Even black people are still forced to behave and speak differently than white people in the US. They still are promoting racial and ethnic behavior by stereotyped marketing brainwashing. Paul Kagame is a war criminal himself. He was just sent from Ouganda to Rwanda by they actual president of Ouganda Yoweri Museveni. Kagame is just an anglo-saxon pawn. His goal is to undermine the French presence in Africa and favor the anglo-saxon interests. French speaking people in the world is expected to grow rapidly because of french speaking African countries. Kagame wich is english-speaking came from the english speaking Ouganda to overthrow the french speaking government of the Rwanda and then impose english in Rwanda. Fuck the perfidious Albion. They provoked this horrible genocide because they are fascists, racists and never cared of black people lives. Fuck this fellon of Kagame that took the power in Rwanda and the African Union originally created by Gaddhafi to serve the anglo-saxon global imperialism. Kagame is just a pawn of the NATO that don’t want to see Africa develop at all. This traitor to his people of Kagame can live as long as he wants, he will rot in Hell as he dies…
Long comments are more useful when divided into paragraphs that argue a specific point, with links or bibliography, and without emotional judgments.
If you think things “just happen”, and doubt conspiracy theories with wealth motivations,,, well you’re just clueless.
The Clintons and their “foundation” continue to have a lot of money connections with these resource rich blighted countries.
It is good to get the truth on this story rather than the propaganda fables which pass for “truth” in the contemporary western world.
Thanks for keeping this issue alive. Two comments:
1. There are very good materials written on this topic by Christopher Black, counsel for (completely exonerated) General Ndindiliyimana, especially the two essays Who Killed Agathe (he suggests Dallaire) and The Dallaire Genocide Fax (Herman and Peterson’s argument relies strongly on Black’s argument and sources; US undersecretary of state for African affairs Herman Cohen had made death threats against Habyarimana mere days before the assassination).
Also brilliant on Black’s website is a play that contains almost verbatim (he blanked out the name of one of the anonymous witnesses) his own (i.e. Black’s) closing argument in the Military II trial.
Finally, I wish to promote a book coedited by Robin Philpot’s brother, John Philpot (also a lawyer at the ICTR, like Christopher Black), Justice Belied (also published by Baraka Books), which goes into the legal fraudulence of the ICTR and associated tribunals (they comment lightly on the initially conjoined ICTY, as there is a large literature on that fraud already, but go into some detail on the tribunals for Sierra Leone and Liberia, the MEK affiliated tribunal for Lebanon (sic—the head of that tribunal was a German citizen of Iranian extraction who was a member of Mujahideen al Khalq when it was still proscribed) and Cambodia. Despite the fact that the author of chapter 10 of the book is very conservative, he proposes that all convictees at these tribunals should be given de novo trials.
2. The logistics operator who flew in the French peacekeepers (operation Turquoise) was Victor Bout, who was fraudulently convicted, upon kidnapping by Thai police under fraudulent US police instruction, of attempting to supply weapons to the FARC for the supposed purpose of assassination of US governmental personnel.
The US had made a grotesque propaganda film (lord of war) against Bout, which bemused Bout greatly, along with various allegations of ties to terrorists et alia. He showed the allegations to be fraudulent: he applied for a US visa, “to visit Disney Land,” so that they could arrest him on arrival and prosecute him. His application was denied.
Christopher Black’s successful defense of General Ndindiliyimana was a historic legal feat. I had the honor of meeting both and even learned to pronounce the general’s name. Rwandans have told me he saved their families in Kigali 1994.
To me, Ndindiliyimana’s refusal to betray people, whether baTúútsi civilians, or his political opponents (he was prosecuted at the ICTR for refusing to be suborned to perjury against general Bagasora, rather than on any substantial suspicion of crimes—the accusations against him were a farce, and even the prosecutor let the actual reason slip), is what makes him a truly great person. One could speak likewise of Christopher Black, who suffered for his steadfastness and honesty.
As to his name, it sounds funny to me, as the prefix ndi- is the 1st person singular verbal conjugation in many Bantu languages (Kinyarwanda is a Bantu language), so the repetition sounds discordant to me. Compare Igbo ndi (I, i.e. 1st person singular pronoun); Igbo is Niger Congo, of which Bantu is a sub-family.
The details of war, insurgency and mayhem change at the “micro” level as we re-examine post-WWII historical events, but at the “macro” level the theme remains the same – the West continuing to exploit the rest of the planet through destabilization, invasions, sanctions, regime changes, election fraud, funding terror armies, and supporting brutal dictatorships. The Western MSM analyze the “micro” level events an assign blame on the “small actors” who are used by the West to carry out policy. While at the “macro” level of history the Western nations continue to rape and pillage Africa while they undermine every effort at progressive reform in Latin America.
Neo-colonial pillage and barbarity continue, no longer justified as during openly “Colonial” times by rationalizations such as – “saving souls” or bringing the wonders of “Western civilization” to those exploited. Instead our barbarity, exploitation and mayhem is sanctified as “duty to protect” and “humanitarian intervention.” As always, asking “who benefits” leads one on the straightest path toward the truth of matters. Africa continues to suffer such chaos, pain and massive human suffering because at the “macro” level it serves Western goals of resource exploitation for Africa to continue to suffer so.
Great comment Gary. The propaganda narrative changes, but the game remains the same.
Perhaps the answer to the constant US sabotage of “progressive reform in Latin America” which originates in the US oligarchy fear of socialism, is to depose our oligarchy. History suggests that tyranny is eliminated only by the destruction of the rich and their supporters, which likely awaits a future great depression. Activism may deprive them of defenses by recruiting the police and national guard to the cause of eliminating oligarchy to restore democracy. I will not lament their passing however it may be brought about.
Author’s research must in no [little or large] way diminish or justify usa’s equal or larger, imperialist presence and culpability in sub-Saharan Africa.
Kleptocratic intervention in Africa is legally and morally wrong.
All countries must want to abide by UN agreements despite coercion by usa.
French political thinking is not exactly like Anglo Saxon. It never has been.
First, la gloire has always been fundamental, both a key part of French self image, and a key part of the legitimacy of the State.
Second, the mission to civilize others was an expression of both la glorie and of their self image as being themselves the definition of civilized.
For all their supposed rationality, their foreign policy was driven by image and emotion before money or effective security. Sure, they wanted money and security, but the priority was the image and emotion. Perfideous Albion and their American cousins never understood how interests could give way to these “higher values.”
That is a complex area indeed. France retained its colonies after WWII, leading to anti-colonial wars in Algeria, Vietnam et al, partly due to rhetoric or belief in a civilizing influence not accepted by the colonized states. Yet France had a far more civilized relationship with Native Americans.
Elements of each culture may be more, or less civilized and civilizing than elements of others. The tyrannical elements of each culture are the most likely to gain power hiding behind the most civilized philosophy. But the US gets the prize for complete failure to depose or even resist economic tyranny, and for innovation and entrepreneurship in systematized propaganda for tyranny.
Yes, Sam F, especially the last sentence. I refused to read this article because I was sure that it would describe more grief dolled out by our enlightened leadership. So I’m writing several days after the publishing of it because I came back via a circular route.
I’m going to link an article from Off Guardian published on January the 11th. about US and NATO manipulations in Kosovo which I been aware of for years. For me it is clear that the Clinton Administration and Secretary Madeleine Albright, began what would become the color revolution process there… In the commentary section of that article one can read a link by a commenter named Schluter who I’ve been impressed by for years now, and one can see the method of disinformation and accusation used in the Clinton Administration to utilize the need for Force.
The overthrow of governments and use of NATO force must be exposed and guilt determined. Truth and Reconciliation is the only way forward…
And this article on Kosovo: https://off-guardian.org/2019/01/12/jacques-hogard-europe-has-died-in-pristina/
Thanks for these links; I have not yet had a chance to study in sufficient detail the Rwanda genocide or the Kosovo struggle.
Indeed the secret wars exploiting NATO and subverting governments for secret purposes must be ended. “Truth and Reconciliation is the only way forward…”
Thanks Sam F. I’ll look forward to further discussion…
Long live France!
Long live Imperialism!
1) Francois Mitterand killed 800,000 Rwandans and said officially that he would not tolerate a new “Fashoda”.
The last battle between France and Britain happened in Fashoda and France lost Sudan to Britain.
2) Jacques Chirac oversaw the disappearance of 350,000 Congolese commonly referred to as the “Disparus du Beach”. This was after he overthrew Lissouba who had dared to befriend Americans and Total was losing oil revenues in the Congo (Brazzaville)
3) Sarkozy killed Mohamad Kadaffi after extorting $60million for his political campaign.
Killed 50,000 Libyans using the NATO cover and turned Libya into a failed state.
His minister of defense – Alain Juppe publicly asked “freed Libyans” to pay France in oil for killing their “dictator”.
4) Francois Hollande sent Jihadists to Syria in order to repeat the Libyan scenario. They did the “Bon boulot” as his prime minister bragged publicly. After 7 years, more than 500,000 Syrians have been killed and 5+millions displaced.
Long live “France Afrique”!
Long live Liberte, Egalite and Terror in the dark continent!
Long live imperialism!
Long live the new world order!